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Topic: NOAA

NASA measurements show Ethanol Refineries Emissions may be higher than Estimated

 

Written by Patrick Lynch
NASA’s Earth Science News Team

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationWashington, D.C. – Ethanol fuel refineries could be releasing much larger amounts of ozone-forming compounds into the atmosphere than current assessments suggest, according to a new study based on a field campaign that included a NASA sensor.

Airborne measurements made downwind from an ethanol fuel refinery in Decatur, Illinois, in 2013 found ethanol emissions 30 times higher than government estimates.

The measurements also showed emissions of all volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which include ethanol, were five times higher than government numbers, which estimate emissions based on manufacturing information.

Air-quality readings over the Midwest were made from an aircraft in 2013 at three different distances downwind from an ethanol refining plant in Decatur, Illinois. The measurements were used to calculate emissions of various gases, including VOCs, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide. (Joost de Gouw)

Air-quality readings over the Midwest were made from an aircraft in 2013 at three different distances downwind from an ethanol refining plant in Decatur, Illinois. The measurements were used to calculate emissions of various gases, including VOCs, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide. (Joost de Gouw)

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NASA’s RapidScat on International Space Station gathering data on Tropical Cyclones

 

Written by Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationGreenbelt, MD – The ISS-RapidScat instrument has been in orbit seven months, and forecasters are already finding this new eye-in-the-sky helpful as they keep watch on major storms around the globe.

RapidScat measures Earth’s ocean surface wind speed and direction over open waters. The instrument’s data on ocean winds provide essential measurements for researchers and scientists to use in weather predictions, including hurricane monitoring.

On Jan. 28, 2015 from 2:41 to 4:14 UTC, ISS-RapidScat saw the nor'easter's strongest sustained winds (red) between 56 and 67 mph (25 to 30 mps/90 to 108 kph) just off-shore from eastern Cape Cod. (NASA JPL/Doug Tyler)

On Jan. 28, 2015 from 2:41 to 4:14 UTC, ISS-RapidScat saw the nor’easter’s strongest sustained winds (red) between 56 and 67 mph (25 to 30 mps/90 to 108 kph) just off-shore from eastern Cape Cod. (NASA JPL/Doug Tyler)

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NASA reports Jason-3 satellite set to launch in July

 

Written by Alan Buis
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationPasadena, CA – You can’t predict the outcome of a marathon from the runners’ times in the first few miles. You’ve got to see the whole race. Global climate change is like that: You can’t understand it if all you have is a few years of data from a few locations. That’s one reason that a fourth-generation satellite launching this summer is something to get excited about.

Jason-3, a mission led by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that is currently scheduled to launch on July 22nd, is the latest in a series of U.S.-European satellite missions that have been measuring the height of the ocean surface for 23 years.

Artist's rendering of Jason-3. (NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Artist’s rendering of Jason-3. (NASA/JPL-Caltech)

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NASA reports Researchers looking into United States Methane “Hot Spot”

 

Written by Alan Buis
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationPasadena, CA – Researchers from several institutions are in the Four Corners region of the U.S. Southwest with a suite of airborne and ground-based instruments, aiming to uncover reasons for a mysterious methane “hot spot” detected from space.

“With all the ground-based and airborne resources that the different groups are bringing to the region, we have the unique chance to unequivocally solve the Four Corners mystery,” said Christian Frankenberg, a scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, who is heading NASA’s part of the effort.

Shiprock, New Mexico, is in the Four Corners region where an atmospheric methane "hot spot" can be seen from space. Researchers are currently in the area, trying to uncover the reasons for the hot spot. (Wikimedia Commons)

Shiprock, New Mexico, is in the Four Corners region where an atmospheric methane “hot spot” can be seen from space. Researchers are currently in the area, trying to uncover the reasons for the hot spot. (Wikimedia Commons)

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NASA’s Magnetospheric Multiscale Probe set to launch March 12th

 

Written by Karen C. Fox
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationGreenbelt, MD – The Magnetospheric Multiscale, or MMS, mission is scheduled to launch into space on March 12th, 2015. The mission consists of four spacecraft to observe a phenomenon called magnetic reconnection — which doesn’t happen naturally on Earth all that often, but is a regular occurrence in space.

At the heart of magnetic reconnection is a fundamental physics process in which magnetic field lines come together and explosively realign, often sending the particles in the area flying off near the speed of light.

Solar flares – such as this one captured by NASA's SDO on July 12, 2012, are initiated by a phenomenon called magnetic reconnection. (NASA/SDO)

Solar flares – such as this one captured by NASA’s SDO on July 12, 2012, are initiated by a phenomenon called magnetic reconnection. (NASA/SDO)

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NASA’s Terra Satellite takes image of Eastern United States under Arctic Freeze

 

Written by Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationGreenbelt, MD – NASA’s Terra satellite captured an image of the snow-covered eastern U.S. that looks like the states have been sitting in a freezer. In addition to the snow cover, Arctic and Siberian air masses have settled in over the Eastern U.S. triggering many record low temperatures in many states.

On February 19th at 16:40 UTC (11:40am EST), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured a picture of the snowy landscape.

NASA's Terra satellite captured this picture of snow across the eastern United States on Feb. 19th at 16:20 UTC (11:20am EST). (NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team)

NASA’s Terra satellite captured this picture of snow across the eastern United States on Feb. 19th at 16:20 UTC (11:20am EST). (NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team)

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Tennessee Agencies prepare for Winter Storm, Urge Tennesseans to Avoid Unnecessary Road Travel

 

Tennessee Department of Safety and Homeland SecurityNashville, TN – The Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA), the Tennessee Department of Safety and Homeland Security, and the Tennessee Department of Transportation (TDOT) urge citizens to avoid unnecessary road travel on Monday as the state prepares for a severe winter storm. Motorists who must drive on Monday are advised to check local forecasts and road conditions before travelling.

Middle Tennessee will be under a Winter Storm Warning starting at 9:00pm, CST, Sunday until 6:00am, CST, Monday. The National Weather Service is forecasting a wintry mixture of snow, sleet and freezing rain at Tennessee’s border with Alabama. Along Tennessee’s border with Kentucky, six inches to 10 inches of snow is possible.

Snow and ice on the roads.

Snow and ice on the roads.

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NASA monitors Frigid Temperatures moving across Eastern United States

 

Written by Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationGreenbelt, MD – Some of the coldest air of the 2014-2015 winter season was settling over the eastern two-thirds of the U.S. on February 13th, 2015. That Arctic air mass brought wind chills from below zero to the single numbers from the Midwest to the Mid-Atlantic.

Despite the cold on the surface, infrared NASA satellite imagery revealed even colder temperatures in cloud tops associated with the air mass.

NOAA’s GOES-East satellite provided a visible and infrared picture of the clouds associated with the Arctic air mass, as they stretched from the eastern Dakotas to the Mid-Atlantic region.

This false-colored infrared image from the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite at 7:29 UTC (2:29 a.m. EST) shows cloud top temperatures over New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire near 245K/-28C/-18F (greenish to blue shading). (NASA JPL, Ed Olsen)

This false-colored infrared image from the AIRS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite at 7:29 UTC (2:29 a.m. EST) shows cloud top temperatures over New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire near 245K/-28C/-18F (greenish to blue shading). (NASA JPL, Ed Olsen)

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NASA reports NOAA to launch Deep Space Climate Observatory to measure the Sun’s Solar Wind

 

Written by Karen C. Fox
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationGreenbelt, MD – There’s a fascinating spot some 932,000 miles away from Earth where the gravity between the sun and Earth is perfectly balanced. This spot captures the attention of orbital engineers because a satellite can orbit this spot, called Lagrange 1 just as they can orbit a planet.

But the spot tantalizes scientists as well: Lagrange 1 lies outside Earth’s magnetic environment, a perfect place to measure the constant stream of particles from the sun, known as the solar wind, as they pass by.

In early February, the United States Air Force will launch a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite called Deep Space Climate Observatory, or DSCOVR, into orbit around this spot.

The solar arrays on NOAA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory spacecraft, or DSCOVR, are unfurled in the Building 1 high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. (NASA/Ben Smegelsky)

The solar arrays on NOAA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory spacecraft, or DSCOVR, are unfurled in the Building 1 high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. (NASA/Ben Smegelsky)

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NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory could help develop better Weather Forecasts

 

Written by Carol Rasmussen
NASA Earth Science News Team

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationWashington, D.C. – If you were trying to forecast tomorrow’s weather, you would probably look up at the sky rather than down at the ground. But if you live in the U.S. Midwest or someplace with a similar climate, one key to a better weather forecast may lie beneath your feet.

Precipitation and temperature are part of every weather forecast. Precipitation comes from clouds, clouds are formed of airborne water vapor, and vapor comes from evaporating soil moisture — so soil moisture governs precipitation.

NASA's SMAP's soil moisture measurements will help with forecasts of precipitation and temperature. (UCAR)

NASA’s SMAP’s soil moisture measurements will help with forecasts of precipitation and temperature. (UCAR)

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