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Topic: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NASA Observes Australia’s Bushfires, From Smoke Going Round the World to Aerosol Levels

 

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationGreenbelt, MD – NASA scientists using data from its NOAA/NASA Suomi NPP satellite, has traced the movement of the smoke coming off the Australian fires across the globe showing that it has circumnavigated the Earth.

In an image created from data gathered by the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir Mapper on Suomi NPP, a black circle shows the smoke which had been traced from its origins coming back to the eastern region of Australia after having traveled around the world.

This image of the UV aerosol index from the Suomi NPP satellite OMPS Nadir Mapper instrument showing a "close-up" from Jan. 13, 2020 (specifically orbit 42546). The image reveals that the smoke has now made its all the way back to eastern Australia (black circle). The red circle shows "newly formed" (or current) smoke that has just been emitted from the fires. The green circle shows the dust from an intense dust storm. (NASA/Colin Seftor)

This image of the UV aerosol index from the Suomi NPP satellite OMPS Nadir Mapper instrument showing a “close-up” from Jan. 13, 2020 (specifically orbit 42546). The image reveals that the smoke has now made its all the way back to eastern Australia (black circle). The red circle shows “newly formed” (or current) smoke that has just been emitted from the fires. The green circle shows the dust from an intense dust storm. (NASA/Colin Seftor)

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NASA, NOAA research shows 2019 Second Warmest Year on Record

 

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationGreenbelt, MD – According to independent analyses by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Earth’s global surface temperatures in 2019 were the second warmest since modern record keeping began in 1880.

Globally, 2019 temperatures were second only to those of 2016 and continued the planet’s long-term warming trend: the past five years have been the warmest of the last 140 years.

This plot shows yearly temperature anomalies from 1880 to 2019, with respect to the 1951-1980 mean, as recorded by NASA, NOAA, the Berkeley Earth research group, the Met Office Hadley Centre (UK), and the Cowtan and Way analysis. Though there are minor variations from year to year, all five temperature records show peaks and valleys in sync with each other. (NASA GISS/Gavin Schmidt)

This plot shows yearly temperature anomalies from 1880 to 2019, with respect to the 1951-1980 mean, as recorded by NASA, NOAA, the Berkeley Earth research group, the Met Office Hadley Centre (UK), and the Cowtan and Way analysis. Though there are minor variations from year to year, all five temperature records show peaks and valleys in sync with each other. (NASA GISS/Gavin Schmidt)

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NASA reports Ozone Hole Smallest on Record Since Its Discovery

 

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationWashington, D.C. – NASA and NOAA scientists reported today that abnormal weather patterns in the upper atmosphere over Antarctica dramatically limited ozone depletion in September and October, resulting in the smallest ozone hole observed since 1982.

The annual ozone hole reached its peak extent of 6.3 million square miles (16. 4 million square kilometers) on September 8th, and then shrank to less than 3.9 million square miles (10 million square kilometers) for the remainder of September and October, according to NASA and NOAA satellite measurements. During years with normal weather conditions, the ozone hole typically grows to a maximum area of about 8 million square miles in late September or early October.

The 2019 ozone hole reached its peak extent of 6.3 million square miles (16. 4 million square kilometers) on September 8th. Abnormal weather patterns in the upper atmosphere over Antarctica dramatically limited ozone depletion this year. (NASA)

The 2019 ozone hole reached its peak extent of 6.3 million square miles (16. 4 million square kilometers) on September 8th. Abnormal weather patterns in the upper atmosphere over Antarctica dramatically limited ozone depletion this year. (NASA)

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NASA CYGNSS Satellites use GPS to measure Hurricane Winds

 

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationWashington, D.C. – Eight briefcase-size satellites flying in a row may be key to improving forecasts of a hurricane’s wind speed – detecting whether it will make landfall as a Category 1 or a Category 5. NASA’s Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) fleet, launched in 2016, was designed to show whether the same GPS signals your phone uses for navigation can be used to measure winds deep within a hurricane or typhoon. The answer appears to be a resounding yes.

Weather forecasting models have gotten much better at predicting the future track of a hurricane or typhoon, but they haven’t improved at predicting its maximum wind speed, which scientists call intensity.

Illustration of one of the eight CYGNSS satellites in orbit above a hurricane. (NASA)

Illustration of one of the eight CYGNSS satellites in orbit above a hurricane. (NASA)

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NASA Satellite Data reveals Climate Change effect on Fires

 

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationWashington, D.C. – Hot and dry. NASA says these are the watchwords for large fires. While every fire needs a spark to ignite and fuel to burn, it’s the hot and dry conditions in the atmosphere that determine the likelihood of a fire starting, its intensity and the speed at which it spreads. Over the past several decades, as the world has increasingly warmed, so has its potential to burn.

Since 1880, the world has warmed by 1.9 degrees Fahrenheit, with the five warmest years on record occurring in the last five years. Since the 1980s, the wildfire season has lengthened across a quarter of the world’s vegetated surface, and in some places like California, fire has become nearly a year-round risk.

Fires are a natural part of the ecosystem in North American forests. However, their size and intensity is shaped by climate. (NASA)

Fires are a natural part of the ecosystem in North American forests. However, their size and intensity is shaped by climate. (NASA)

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NASA Estimates Hurricane Dorian’s Massive Bahama Rainfall Totals

 

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationGreenbelt, MD – Hurricane Dorian dropped excessive rainfall on the Bahamas and NASA calculated the rainfall the storm generated.

“By Wednesday morning, September 4th, 2019 the rain accumulation from Hurricane Dorian exceeded 36 inches in an area that included parts of Grand Bahama Island and Abaco Island,” said Owen Kelley, researcher at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

“By that time, the Dorian’s center was north of the Bahamas and was moving further north, approximately parallel to Florida’s east coast,” Kelley stated.

This image shows NASA IMERG estimated rainfall accumulations for the region of the Bahamas affected by Hurricane Dorian from August 31st to September 4th. The imagery shows rainfall exceeded 36 inches in an area that included parts of Grand Bahama Island and Abaco Island. (NASA Goddard)

This image shows NASA IMERG estimated rainfall accumulations for the region of the Bahamas affected by Hurricane Dorian from August 31st to September 4th. The imagery shows rainfall exceeded 36 inches in an area that included parts of Grand Bahama Island and Abaco Island. (NASA Goddard)

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NASA’s IMERG Estimates Hurricane Dorian’s Rain

 

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationGreenbelt, MD – In the early hours of Tuesday, September 3rd, 2019, NASA reports Hurricane Dorian had been stationary over the island of Grand Bahama for 18 hours, most of the time as a category 5 hurricane. Storm-total rain accumulation over parts of Grand Bahama and Abaco Islands have exceeded 24 inches according to NASA satellite-based estimates.

On early Tuesday morning, Dorian’s central pressure had risen and its wind intensity had dropped to category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. 

NASA’s IMERG storm-total rain accumulation over parts of Grand Bahama and Abaco islands have exceeded 24 inches according to NASA satellite-based estimates. The graphic also shows the distance that tropical-storm force (39 mph) winds extend from Hurricane Dorian’s low-pressure center, as reported by the National Hurricane Center. The symbols H and TS represent a hurricane of various Saffir-Simpson categories or a tropical storm, respectively. (NASA Goddard)

NASA’s IMERG storm-total rain accumulation over parts of Grand Bahama and Abaco islands have exceeded 24 inches according to NASA satellite-based estimates. The graphic also shows the distance that tropical-storm force (39 mph) winds extend from Hurricane Dorian’s low-pressure center, as reported by the National Hurricane Center. The symbols H and TS represent a hurricane of various Saffir-Simpson categories or a tropical storm, respectively. (NASA Goddard)

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NASA Overhead as Dangerous Hurricane Dorian Takes Aim at Grand Bahamas

 

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationGreenbelt, MD – NASA says dangerous Hurricane Dorian has weakened slightly and is now a Category 4 storm as it continues to spin over the Bahamas.  Dorian has slowed to a crawl in terms of speed of movement only moving at west-northwest at about 1 mph (2 km/h). 

This means that the Bahamas will continue to get lashed by this monstrous storm and the amount of rainfall totals for the area continue to grow. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) has reported that the eye of the hurricane has begun to wobble a bit over Grand Bahama Island. 

Astronaut Christine Koch of the International Space Station captured this image of Hurricane Dorian outside the ISS windows the morning of September 2nd, 2019. (NASA)

Astronaut Christine Koch of the International Space Station captured this image of Hurricane Dorian outside the ISS windows the morning of September 2nd, 2019. (NASA)

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AAA reports Cheap Crude Oil Paves Way for Significant Savings at the Pump

 

AAAWashington, D.C. – AAA says when filling-up at the pump this fall, the majority of U.S. motorists will find savings of potentially more than 25-cents/gallon compared to this summer.

The national gas price average, which is already 15-cents cheaper than just five weeks ago, is poised to continue pushing less expensive due to several factors, including less expensive crude oil prices, the drop-off in gasoline demand after Labor Day and the move to winter-blend gasoline.

AAA Forecasts National Gas Price Average to Land at $2.40 or Lower This Fall. (AAA)

AAA Forecasts National Gas Price Average to Land at $2.40 or Lower This Fall. (AAA)

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NASA picks Study Proposals for understanding Fundamental Nature of Space

 

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationWashington, D.C. Two Proposals have been picked by NASA for concept studies that could help us better understand the fundamental nature of space and how it changes in response to planetary atmospheres, radiation from the Sun, and interstellar particles. The proposals will advance NASA’s heliophysics program and could lead to better protection for both technology and humans as we travel farther from home.

Each of these Heliophysics Science Mission of Opportunity proposals will receive $400,000 to conduct a nine-month mission concept study.

NASA has chosen two new science proposals for nine-month concept studies to advance our understanding of how the particles and energy in space – shown here flowing from the Sun in an illustration of the solar wind – affect the fundamental nature of space. One proposal will ultimately be chosen to launch along with NASA’s upcoming Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe in October 2024. (NASA)

NASA has chosen two new science proposals for nine-month concept studies to advance our understanding of how the particles and energy in space – shown here flowing from the Sun in an illustration of the solar wind – affect the fundamental nature of space. One proposal will ultimately be chosen to launch along with NASA’s upcoming Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe in October 2024. (NASA)

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